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There had been an ongoing controversy over health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) for years (e.g., extremely low frequency radiation and the Navy’s Project Seafarer; emissions of high power lines and video display terminals; radar and other military and industrial sources of radio frequencies and microwaves, such as plastic sealers and molders). Less is known of Department of Defense (DOD) and Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) interest in anti-personnel applications of the invisible energies. The ability of certain parameters of EMF; to cause health effects, including neurological and behavioral disturbances, has been part of the military and CIA arsenal for years.
Capabilities of the energies to cause predictable and exploitable effects or damages can be gleaned from discussion of health effects from environmental exposures. Interestingly, some scientists funded by the DOD or CIA to research and develop invisible electromagnetic weapons have voiced strong concern (perhaps even superior knowledge or compensatory to guilt) over potentially serious consequences of environmental exposures.
Eldon Byrd who worked for Naval Surface Weapons, Office of Non-Lethal Weapons, was commissioned in 1981 to develop electromagnetic devices for purposes including “riot control,” clandestine operations and hostage removal. In the context of a controversy over reproductive hazards to Video Display Terminal (VDT) operators, he wrote of alterations in brain function of animals exposed to low intensity fields. Offspring of exposed animals “exhibited a drastic degradation of intelligence later in life…couldn’t learn easy tasks…indicating a very definite and irreversible damage to the central nervous system of the fetus.” With VDT operators exposed to weak fields, there have been clusters of miscarriages and birth defects (With evidence of central nervous system damage to the fetus).
Byrd also wrote of experiments where behavior of animals was controlled by exposure to weak electromagnetic fields. “At a certain frequency and power intensity, they could make the animal purr, lay down and roll over.”
Jose Delgado, advocate of a psychocivilized society through mind control, no longer implants electrodes in the brains of mental patients and prisoners; he now induces profound behavioral changes (hyperactivity, passivity, etc.) by exposing animals to precisely tuned EMFs. He has also written of genetic damage produced by weak EMF fields, similar to (those emitted by VDTs.) Invariably, brain tissue damage and skeletal deformation was observed in new born chicks that had been exposed. He was concerned enough to check emissions from the appliances in his kitchen.
Ross Adey induces calcium efflux in brain tissue with low power level fields (a basis for the CIA and military’s “confusion weaponry”) and has done behavioral experiments with radar modulated at electroencephalogram (EEG) rhythms. He is understandably concerned about environmental exposures within 1 to 30 Hz (cycles per second), either as a low frequency or an amplitude modulation on a microwave or radio frequency, as these can physiologically interact with the brain even at very low power densities.
Microwaves – Microwave health effects is a juncture where Department of Defense and environmental concerns collide and part ways. Security, according to Sam Koslov of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), first prompt of low intensity (for non-thermal) microwaves. At times, up 70-80% of the research was funded by the military. From 1965 to 1970, a study dubbed Project Pandora was undertaken to determine the health and psychological effects of low intensity microwaves, the so-called “Moscow signal” registered at the American Embassy in Moscow. Initially, there was confusion over whether the signal was an attempt to activate bugging devices or for some other purpose. There was suspicion that the microwave irradiation was being used as a mind control system. CIA agents asked Scientists involved in microwave research whether microwaves beamed at human beings from a distance could affect the brain and alter behavior.
Dr. Milton Zaret who on undertook to analyze Soviet’s literature on microwaves for the CIA, wrote: “For non-thermal irradiation, they believe the electromagnetic fields induced by the microwave environments affects the cell membrane, and this results in an increase of excitability or an increase in the level of excitation of nerve cells. With repeated or continued exposure, the increased excitability leads to a State of exhaustion of the cells of the cerebral cortex.”
Employees first learned of the irradiation ten years after Project Pandora began. Before that, information had been parceled out on a strict “need to know” basis, which excluded most employees at the compound. Due to secrecy, and probably reports like Dr. Zaret’s, Jack Anderson speculated that the CIA was trying to cover up a Soviet effort at behavior modification through irradiation of the U.S. diplomats, and that the cover-up was created to protect the CIA’s own mind control secrets.
Finally, an unusually large number of illnesses were reported among the residents of the compound. U.S. Ambassador Walter Stoessel developed a rare blood disease similar to leukemia; he was suffering headaches and bleeding from the eyes. A source at the State Department informally admitted that excessive radiation had been leaking from his telephone; an American high frequency radio transmitter on the roof of the building had, when operating, induced high frequency signals well above the U.S. safety standard through the phones in the political section, as well as in lines to Stoessel’s office. No doubt, National Security Agency or CIA electronic devices also contributed to the electromagnetic environment at the embassy, although values for these were never released, as they are secret. Stoessel was reported as telling his staff that the microwaves could cause leukemia, skin cancer, cataracts and various forms of emotional illness. White blood cell counts were estimated to be as high as 40% above normal in one third of the staff, and serious chromosome damage was uncovered.
The Soviets began research on biological effects of microwaves in 1953. A special laboratory was set up at the Institute of Hygiene and Occupational Diseases, Academy of Medical Sciences. Other labs were set up in the U.S.S.R. and in Eastern Europe that study both effects of microwaves and low frequency electromagnetic radiation. Years ago, in the halls of science, complaints could be heard that Soviet experiments regarding bio-effects couldn’t be duplicated due to insufficient details in their Scientific literature, although, according to one DOD official, 75% of the U.S. papers on the subject carried insufficient parameters for duplication. Scientists even questioned, with McCarthy-like sentiments whether the Soviets were attenuating to frighten or mis-inform with false scientific reporting of bio-effects. It was unthinkable, according to cruder scientific theory, that non-thermal levels of microwaves could cause harm. Impetus for a study of such effect came not from concern for the public, but rather in the military and intelligence community’s suspicion of the Soviets, and their equally strong interest in developing exploitable anti-personnel effects — an interest that continues unabated today.
The CIA and DOD “security” concerns metamorphized into research and development of invisible weapons capable of impacting on health and psychological processes. In fact, due to the finding of startling effects, DARPA’s security became even tighter, and a new code name — “Bizarre” — was assigned to the project.
Scientist Allen Frey of Randomline, Inc. was always more interested in low intensity microwave hazards: thermal effects were known. During project Pandora, the Navy funded such projects of his, as how to use low average power intensities, to: induce heart seizures; create leaks in the blood brain barrier, which would allow neurotoxins in the blood to cross and cause neurological damage or behavioral disorders; and how produce auditory hallucination or “microwave hearing”, during which the person can hear tones that seem to be coming from within the head or from directly behind it. In 1976, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA) released a report in which they attributed the results of Dr. Frey’s, who acknowledges that his work was mis-attributed, he had thought up the projects himself. The DILLA, but not the CIA, is allowed to use “mirror imaging” and “net assessment” in their reports, i.e., respectively, the attribution of one’s own motives and weapons capabilities to “the other side,” in this case, the Soviets. It follows, that there is nothing to prevent them from releasing a report prepared in this manner, and thus muddy the water of decision making, pervert public opinion, stoke up congressional funding or enlist the support of naive scientists to counter “the threat.” There was strong [criticism?] through the American press, but apparently the DIA, at least in some issues, can dish it up with impunity.
The 1976 DIA report also credits the Soviets with other capabilities, stating, “Sounds and possibly even words which appear to be originating internally can be induced by signal modulation at very low power densities.” Dr. Sharp, a Pandora research at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, some of whose work was so secret that he couldn’t tell his boss, conducted an experiment in which the human brain has received a message carried to it by microwave transmission. Sharp was able to recognize spoken words that were modulated on a microwave carrier frequency by an “audiogram,” an analog of the words’ sound vibrations, and carried into his head in a chamber where he sat.
Dr. James Lin of Wayne State University has written a book entitled “Microwave Auditory Effects and Applications.” It explores the possible mechanisms for the phenomenon, and discusses possibilities for the deaf, as persons with certain types of hearing loss can still hear pulsed microwaves (as tones or clicks and buzzes, if words aren’t modulated on). Lin mentions the Sharp experiment and comments, “The capability of communicating directly with humans by pulsed microwaves is obviously not limited to the field of therapeutic medicine.”
Dr. Robert O. Becker, twice nominated for the Noble prize for his health work in bio-electromagnetism, was more explicit in his concern over illicit government activity. He wrote of “obvious application in covert operations designed to drive a target crazy with “voices.” What is frightening is that words, transmitted via low density microwaves or radio frequencies, or by other covert methods, might be used to create influence. For instance, according to a 1984 U.S. House of Representatives report, a large number of stores throughout the country use high frequency transmitted words (above the range of human hearing) to discourage shoplifting. Stealing is reported to be reduced by as much as 80% in some cases.
Dr. Frey also did experiments on reduction of aggression. Rats who were accustomed to fighting viciously when their tails were pinched, accepted the pinching with relative passivity when irradiated with pulsed microwaves in the ultra high frequency range (UHF) at a power density of less than 1,000 microwatts/cm2. He has also done low intensity microwave experiment degrading motor coordination and balance. When asked about weapons application of his work, he answered by referring to himself as “just a biological theory,” and his work for the Navy, “basic medical research.”
Lies Before Congress – In 1976, George H. Heilmeier, director of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) responded to a mailgram to President Ford from Don Johnson of Oakland, paraphrasing Johnson’s concern, and assuring him that the DARPA sponsored Army/Navy Pandora experiments were “never directed at the use of microwaves as a surveillance tool, nor in a weapons concept.” Don Johnson lingered in the memory of one DOD official who sponsored microwave research in the 1970s. Johnson was enigmatically described as “brilliant.. schizophrenic was done.” (Scientists who have disagreed with the DOD on health effects of microwaves and on the U.S. exposure standard, have received scant more respect and have had their cut.)
The next year, Heilmeier elaborated in a written response to an inquiry before Congress, “…This agency [DARPA] is not aware of any research projects, classified or unclassified, conducted under the auspices of the Defense Department, now ongoing, or in the past, which would have probed possibilities of utilizing microwave radiation in a form of what is popular known as “mind control.” We do not foresee the development by DARPA of weapons using microwaves and actively being directed toward altering nervous system function or behavior. Neither are we aware of any of our own forces … developing such weapons..”
Finally memoranda were released that rendered the goals of Pandora transparent. Richard Cesaro initiator of Pandora and director of DARPA’s Advanced Sensor program, justified the project in that “little or no work has been done in investigation of the subtle behavioral changes which may be evolved by a low-level electromagnetic field.” Researchers had long ago established that direct stimulus of the brain could alter behavior. The question raised by radio frequencies — microwaves or radio frequencies of the UHF or VHF band — was whether the electromagnetic could have a similar effect at very low levels. Pandora’s initial goal: to discover whether a carefully constructed microwave signal could control the mind. In the context of long term low-level effects: Cesaro felt that central nervous system effects could be important, and urged their study “for potential weapons applications.” After testing a low-level modulated microwave signal on a chimpanzee and within approximately a week causing stark performance decrements and behavioral disorganization, Cesaro wrote “the potential of exerting a degree of control on human behavior by low-level microwaves seems to exist.” On the basis of the primate study extensive discussions took place and plans were made to extend the studies to humans. According to a former DOD security analyst one such microwave experiment with human subjects took place at Lorton Prison in the early 1970s. He said that such research (in a weapons context) has occurred on behavioral effects of microwaves since 1976. He also asked “Why are you so concerned about then? What about now? They can call anyone a terrorist. Who are they using it on now?”
Behavioral Effects – In June 1970 a government think tank, Rand Corporation published a report by R.J. MacGregor, entitled “A Brief Survey of Literature Relating to Influence of Low Intensity Microwaves on Nervous Functions.” After noting that the U.S. microwave guideline in effect in 1970 for the public, 10,000 microwatts/cm2 (now the industrial and military “guideline”) is proscribed from consideration of the rate that thermal effects are dissipated, the author, a specialist in modeling neural networks states that scientific studies have consistently shown that humans exhibit behavioral disturbances when subjected to non-thermal levels of microwaves well below this level. The symptoms that MacGregor lists for those humans exposed more or less regularly at work or in the living environment are insomnia, irritability, loss of memory, fatigue, headache, tremor, hallucination, autonomic disorders, and disturbed sensory functioning. He reports that swelling and distention of nerve cells have been produced at intensities as low as 1,000 microwatts/cm2 (the current U.S. guideline for the public).
In a Companion Rand paper June 1970 entitled “A Direct Mechanism for the Direct Influence of Microwave Radiation on Neuroelectric Function,” “MacGregor” sets forth the idea that the electrical component of microwave radiation induces transmembrane potentials in nerve cells and thereby disturbs nervous function and behavior. Microwaves penetrate and are absorbed more deeply so that they can produce a direct effect on the central nervous system. With smaller wave lengths the principal absorption occurs near the body surface and causes peripheral or “lower” nervous system effects.
Dr. Milton Zaret who analyzed neurological effects for the CIA during Project Pandora (he is now one of the few doctors willing to take the government on by testifying on behalf of plaintiffs filing claims for microwave health damage) wrote that “receptors of the brain are susceptible and react to extremely low intensities of microwave radiation if this is delivered in accordance with appropriate “coding.” Coding is reported to be influenced by the character of the signal so as to be a function, for example, of the shape and amplitude of the pulse or waveform.
Dr. Ross Adey, formerly of the Brain Research Center at University of Southern California, Los Angeles, now at Loma Linda University Medical School, Loma Linda, California was among the first of the Pandora researchers. His work is more precise in inducing specific behavior rather than merely causing disorganization or decrements in performance, that is, apart from his studies on inducing calcium efflux in brain tissue which causes interference with the function of the brain and is one basis of “Confusion Weaponry.” More specifically, Adey’s thesis is that if the electroencephalogram (EEG) has informational significance, “one can induce behavioral changes if one imposes environmental fields that look like EEG.” During Adey’s career he has correlated a wide variety of behavioral states with EEG including emotional states (e.g. stress in hostile questioning) increments of decision making and conditioning correct versus incorrect performance etc. and he has imposed electromagnetic fields that look like EEG which has resulted in altered EEG and behavior.
In published accounts of Adey’s work, he has shown that it is possible to apply low biologic frequencies by using a radio frequency carrier modulated at specific brain frequencies. He demonstrated that if the biological modulation on the carrier frequency is close to frequencies in the natural EEG of the subject it will reinforce or increase the number of manifestation of the imposed rhythms and modulate behavior.
The Conditioning paradigm: animals were trained through aversion to produce specific brain wave rhythms; animals trained in a field with the same rhythm amplitude modulated on it, differed significantly from control animals in both accuracy and resistance to extinction (at least 50 days versus 10 in the controls). Then the fields were used on untrained animals occurrence of the applied rhythm increased in the animals’ EEG.
Dr. Adey is an accomplished scientist which lead one to believe the Significance of this experiment goes beyond mere reinforcement of the animal’s brain waves. Did the rhythms that he chose to apply have special significance with relation to information processing or conditioning? The 4.5 theta rhythm that he applied was the natural reoccurring frequency that he had measured in the hippocampus during a phase of avoidance learning. The hippocampus as Adey wrote in an earlier paper, “… involves neural processes connected with consolidation of memory traces. It relates closely to the need for focusing attention and the degree to which recapitulation of past experience is imposed. One might add to ensure survival. [Continued to part 2]
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