A Study of the History of US Intelligence Community Human Rights Violations and Continuing Research in Electromagnetic Weapons
Dr. Ewen Cameron 71
Once the details of MKULTRA came to light, the focus in the media and in the Senate, was on the use of drugs, especially LSD. While the researchers within the project did indeed concentrate on developing a variety of hallucinogenic concoctions, they did so with an end in mind. The goal was to devise means and methods of enabling undercover operatives, soldiers, contractors or anyone who was involved in secret projects, to be able to keep those secrets if they were captured or interrogated. Hypnosis, combined with drugs, sensory deprivation and systematic abuse were seen as a means to that end. The leader in this pharmaceutical and psychological research was Dr. Ewen Cameron.
Cameron was at the time, one of the most esteemed psychiatrists in the world. As president of the American Psychiatric Association, Canadian Psychiatric Association, and one of the founders of the World Psychiatric Association, Dr. Cameron began experimenting on brainwashing techniques as early as the 1930s with schizophrenic patients. At this time lobotomies were not yet in common use, though the procedure would begin to be implemented in 1936 on a wide scale. Electroshock therapy was some years from being accepted as a primary means of changing behavior.72
71 This section about Dr. Cameron is based on Orlikow Vs. United States, CIA Settlement of Some Complaints. Ewen Cameron and the Allan Memorial Institute – Subproject 68 funded by CIA from March 18, 1957 to June 30, 1960 Without conceding liability, in 1988 the CIA agreed to pay $750,000 to settle a case brought on behalf of nine plaintiffs who were subjected to federally funded mind control experiments sponsored by the CIA and conducted by prominent psychiatrist Ewen Cameron, M.D. The experiments included heavy doses of LSD, electroshock and psychic driving.
72 See “CIA Brainwashing Experiments”, MacLean’s; January 28, 1985, Vol. 98 Issue 6, p46, 1/3p and “A cold-war horror show’s last act”, US News & World Report; October 17, 88, Vol. 105 Issue 15, p13, 1/3p.
Cameron relied on torturous and highly stressful techniques for breaking down the personality of his patients. Schizophrenics would be stripped down naked beneath red lights for eight hours a day, sometimes for up to eight months with repeated messages inundating their senses. In other experiments Cameron would attempt to induce the delirium associated with a high fever by cooking his patients in an electric cage until their body temperature reached 102 degrees.
From January of 1957 until September of 1960 Cameron became one of the promising researchers the CIA turned to in order to develop means and methods of “brainwashing” and programming human beings to do the will of the agency. Cameron received $64,242.44 73 from the CIA. to develop a combination of techniques that would destroy an individual’s memory of an event and enable the programmer to control their behavior through post-hypnotic commands.
Cameron used a variety of drug combinations coupled with prolonged sleep deprivation, isolation, hypnosis, and electro convulsive therapy in order to “wipe” an individual’s memory. His techniques worked, to a certain extent, but ethical considerations led the CIA to cut Cameron’s funding in the US, prompting Cameron to move to Canada to continue his work with funding channeled through the Canadian Government.
He continued his work, officially, from 1961 until 1964 in Montreal where he received an additional $57,750.74 During this time Cameron combined his techniques (in a “therapy” he called de-patterning) with electroconvulsive therapy in which the voltage introduced into one subjects brain, Linda Macdonald, exceeded the APA’s guidelines by 76.5 times.
He succeeded in wiping her memory and to this day, she cannot remember anything prior to 1963. In a January 17, 1984 broadcast of the Canadian Broadcasting System, a program called “The Fifth Estate” detailed the experiments of Cameron, prompting a burst of investigative journalism culminating in a class-action suit brought against the CIA by former subjects. In 1988, the case was settled out of court for $750,000, divided between 8 plaintiffs. Linda Macdonald received $100,000 and legal fees from the Canadian government, but Cameron himself, faced no punishment.75
Dr. Jose Delgado
Whereas Cameron focused on creating traumatized individuals through intense psychological pressure, Dr. Jose Delgado was investigating the direct route to control of “human subjects.”
Delgado physically invaded the brains of subjects with electrodes in order to create emotions and control actions with the push of a button. As he stated himself,
“We need a program of psychosurgery for political control of our society. The purpose is physical control of the mind. Everyone who deviates from the given norm can be surgically mutilated. The individual may think that the most important reality is his own existence, but this is only his personal point of view. This lacks historical perspective. Man does not have the right to develop his own mind. This kind of liberal orientation has great appeal. We must electrically control the brain. Someday armies and generals will be controlled by electric stimulation of the brain.” 76
In his paper “Intracerebral Radio Stimulation and Recording in Completely Free Patients,” Delgado observed that:
“Radio Stimulation on different points in the amygdala and hippocampus in the four patients produced a variety of effect, including pleasant sensations, elation, deep thoughtful concentration, odd feelings, super relaxation (an essential precursor for deep hypnosis) colored visions, and other responses.” 77
73 CIA MORI ID 17468: http://www.wanttoknow.info/mindcontrol
74 Collins, Anne. In the Sleep Room. The Story of CIA Brainwashing in Canada. Ken Porter Books, 1988
75 Tyner, Arlene. Mind-Control Part 1: Canadian and US Survivors Seek Justice, PROBE Magazine, March-April, 2000
76 Dr. Jose M.R. Delgado Director of Neuropsychiatry, Yale University Medical School. Congressional Record, No. 26, Vol. 118 February 24, 1974.
Delgado, to his credit, did make great strides toward a better understanding the physiology of brain structures and their attendant behavioral and emotional correlates, strides that did not go unnoticed by the intelligence community and the military.
While Delgado worked in an area of specific interest, the direct stimulation of brain structures through implanted electronics, other researchers explored means of creating multiple personalities and programming the alternate personalities that emerged to do a variety of intelligence related work as operatives, still others explored the effects of various drug combinations and other “programming” and interrogation techniques aimed at creating super spies and breaking down enemy agents.
– Source: Peter Phillips, Lew Brown and Bridget Thornton, December 2006, Sonoma State University, Project Censored, Media Freedom Foundation, ProjectCensored Website, (READ MORE)
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